Important Dates in Palestinian Arab History 1840-2007
Compiled by: Nader Abuljebain
Al-Awda, The Palestine Right to Return Coalition
The following is a compilation of important dates and events in Palestinian Arab History.
January 1: Modern Palestinian Revolution
1917 British troops enter Palestine through Rafah. Reach Jerusalem December.
1919 January 3 betrayal by Emir Feisal Ibn al-Hussein al-Hashemi with the President of the World Zionist Organization, Dr. Chaim Weizmann – acceptance of border separation between Arab state and Palestine, Balfour Declaration, and Zionist immigration to Palestine. Rejected by Palestinians.
1919 January 27 First Palestinian National Congress. Conference produces first National Charter. Sends two memoranda to Peace Conference, Versailles France, rejecting British mandate, Balfour Declaration, and Zionist immigration to Palestine. Demands full Palestinian independence. Calls for unity of Palestine and Syria and refers to Palestine as Southern Syria. Sends delegation to Damascus in support of Arab Government.
1932 January 1-4 First Arab Youth Conference in Jaffa. Chaired by Issa Al Bandak.
1935 January 25 Jerusalem First Conference for Muslim Clergy.
1949 January 7 Internationally imposed ceasefire.
1950 January 23 Israel declares Jerusalem capital in defiance of U.N.
1956 Many Israeli attacks and raids on Syria. January 19 UNSC #111 condemns Israel for raid on Syria killing 56 civilians.
1958 January 22 UNSC #127 recommends Israel suspend no-manâs zone in Jerusalem.
1978 President Jimmy Carter recognizes Palestiniansâ right to “a” homeland (instead of “their” homeland).
1979 January 19 UNSC # 444 deplores Israelâs lack of cooperation with U.N. peace force.
1982 US vetoes UNSC resolution demanding Israelâs withdrawal from Golan Heights (Vote: 10 to 1 with 4 abstentions).
1985 January 3 Start of Flasha immigration campaign from Ethiopia to Tel Aviv via Sudan.
1986 January 17 US vetoes UNSC resolution deploring Israelâs violence in southern Lebanon (Vote: 11 to 1 – 3 abstentions).
1986 January 30 US vetoes UNSC resolution deploring Israelâs activities that threaten sanctity of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem. (Vote: 13 to 1 with 1 abstention).
1989 January 12 UNSC grants PLO right to speak directly to the council as “Palestine” on same level as UN member nation.
1992 January 6 UNSC #726 condemns Israelâs decision “to resume deportation of Palestinians from the Palestinian territories, including Jerusalem.â
1992 January 13-16: 3rd round of talks in Washington between Israel and separate Jordanian & Palestinian delegations. Palestinians propose autonomous Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with 180 elected officials managing 5-year transition to full independence. Syria asks for evacuation of Golan. Israel asks for explicit Syrian recognition.
1993 January 19 Kenesset revokes 1986 law prohibiting contact with PLO. Secret negotiations between PLO and Israel begin in Sarpsborg, Norway.
1996 January 20 first Palestinian elections in West Bank and Gaza Strip for 88 members of Palestinian Legislative Council and Palestinian National Authority president. Intimidation by Israel in Jerusalem. Elsewhere turnout high. Central Election Committee: 73% in West Bank, 88% in Gaza Strip. Many strong independent candidates elected to Council including Dr. Haidar âAbd al-Shafi who received highest number of votes of any candidate. Ran on anti-Oslo platform in PNAâs âcapitalâ and Gaza City. Fatah wins 68 seats total (47 official, 21 unofficial). Others: 12 secular-nonaffiliated, 7 Islamist & 1 secular party.
1996 January 15 Netanyahu promises to implement promised partial pullout from Hebron, West Bank.
1997 January 1 off-duty Israeli soldier fires on Hebron central market, injuring 8 Palestinians.
2002 January 14 Israel prohibits PA ministers from attending London conference on Palestinian reform.
2003 January 25, 26 Israel launches series of attacks on Gaza City’s Zaytun district kills 14. Massacres committed by Israeli troops in Gaza Strip (January-June, October and December), and Rafah (December).
2006 January 25, Second Palestinian Legislative Council election. Hamas wins majority of seats. Forms PA cabinet as requested.
1920 Major demonstrations in Palestine, against assigning ofÂ British Mandate by the San Remo Conference. (27 February). Second Palestinian National CongressÂ held in DamascusÂ 27 February as part of The General Syrian Conference, since it was prevented from being held in Palestine by the British authorities.
1936 The Second Conference for the Muslim Clergy held in Jerusalem on 14 February.
1939 Round Table Conference on Palestine at St. James’ Palace, London, followed by “MacDonald White Paper” disclaiming any intention to create a Jewish state, placing restrictions on Jewish immigration and land purchase and envisages an independent state in Palestine within 10 years. (February). Sadhij Nassar (wife of Najib Nassar, owner of Al-Karmel newspaper) is first woman arrested under British Defense Emergency Regulations, and held for 18 months. (23 Feb)
1948 Ben-Gurion issues orders to Haganah commander in Jerusalem for conquest of Holy City and its suburbs. Haganah calls up men and women aged 25 – 35 for military service. Zionists plant explosives, and committ massacres Al Teireh (10), SaâSaâ (14), Qisarya (15), Al Salam Bldg. in Jerusalem (20), and Wadi âAra (27). Jewish Agency announces it will establish state without backing of an international force. British troops begin withdrawal from Palestine givingÂ camps and arms to the Zionists.
1949 24 February : Israeli-Egyptian Armistice Agreement: Egypt keeps coastal strip Gaza-Rafah and evacuates Faloujah pocket. Armistice Agreement. End of FebruaryÂ Israeli units coerce 2-3,000 villagers into leaving Faloujah pocket violating Israeli-Egyptian agreement.
1951 Israel commits massacre of Sharafat village near Jerusalem (27 February)
1954 Israeli raids on Palestinian West Bank and Gaza Strip. (February)
1955 Israeli raid on Egyptian army camp near Gaza City railway station kills 38 Egyptians. (February)
1962 Israel destroys Syrian village of Al Tawafiq on 1 February.
1969 5th Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo on 1 February. Yasser Arafat becomes president of the PLO after Palestinian Resistance factions join the PLO.
1970 Israel attacks Egyptian factory in Abu Za’bal killing 80 workers (12 February)
1971 8th Palestinian National Council convenes in CairoÂ 28 February, establishes unified command of the Palestinian revolution; affirms the slogan of the Democratic State.
1973 Israeli air force shoots down civilian Libyan plane over Sinai desert killing 104 passengers 21 February. Israeli commandos attack guerrilla offices in refugee camps in N.Lebanon, killing 40 Palestinians. (21 February)
1983 16th Palestinian National Council convenes in Algiers on 14-21 February, rejects Reagan plan and states that Fez plan is the minimum acceptable. Envisions future relations with Jordan as “a confederation between two independent states”.
1984 FebruaryÂ 4, Israeli fighter jets force a Libyan civilian airplane, in a piracy high-jacking to land in Israel, believing Dr. George Habash, Secretary General of the PFLP, was on board.
1985 Accord between Jordan and the PLO to accommodate Reaganâs peace initiative on 12Â February.
1986 US vetoes UNSC resolution 6 February which condemned Israelâs hijacking of Libyan passenger plane on February 4 (Vote: 10 to 1 with 1 abstention).
1988 January/February: United National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU) (Al-Qiyada al-Wataniyya al-Muwahhada liâl Intifada) formed to promote intifada, on the initiative of local PF/DFLP, PCP Al Jihad and Fatah leaders. UNLU coordinates the Palestinian boycott of US Sec State Shultzâs visit (February) and mass resignation of 625 Palestinian police officers (10-12Mar). Israeli government orders deportation of 9 Palestinians from WBG on 3 January and UNSC issued resolution # 607 5 January 5, calling on Israel not to deport Palestinians and âstrongly requestingâ it abide by the Forth Geneva Convention. UNSC again issued resolution # 608 on 14 JanuaryÂ âdeeply regrettingâ Israel defiance of the U.N. and deported Palestinian civilians. The US again vetoed UNSC resolution 1 FebruaryÂ calling on Israel to âabandon its policiesâ against Palestinians, that violate rights of occupied peoples, to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention and formalize a leading role for the U.N. in future peace negotiations. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1989 Palestinian-Israeli meeting at Notre Dame Hotel, between East and West Jerusalem. Israelis: Deputy Finance Min. Yossi Beilin, Peres’s adviser Nimrod Novik; former head of the Civil Administration in the West Bank Ephraim Sneh; MK Avraham Burg; Dr.Yair Hirschfeld, Haifa University, Boaz Carmi and Arye Ofri. Palestinians: Faisal Husseini, Sari Nusseibeh, Ziad Abu Zayyad, Hanan Ashrawi, Ghassan Khatib, Sam’an Khouri, Mamduh Aker, and Khalil Mahshi. (16 February). Third round of Palestinian-Israeli talks in Jerusalem. Palestinians headed by Faisal Husseini, and the Israelis by Shinui leaders Amnon Rubinstein and Avraham Poraz. Previous meetings were between Faisal Husseini, Sari Nusseibeh and other Palestinians with Yossi Beilin, Haim Ramon and Avraham Burg as well as Mapam’s Yair Tsaban. (17 February). US vetoes three proposed UNSC resolutions against Zionist crimes during the Intifada on 17 February , which âstrongly deploredâ Israelâs repression of the Palestinian uprising and called on Israel to respect the human rights of the Palestinians (Vote: 14 to 1).
1992 Israeli Apache helicopter gunships kill Shaykh Abbas Musawi, Hizbullahâs S-G, his wife and their 5yr old son, in Lebanon . Hassan Nasrallah takes over as S-G of the organization. ( 16 February )
1994 Baruch Goldstein, a Zionist Terrorist opened fire on the praying people at Al Haram Al Ibrahimi in Hebron and killed 29 people. (February). UNSC issued resolution # 904 on 18 MarchÂ condemning the murder of Palestinians in the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron by an Israeli Colonizer (Settler), with the US abstention.
2001 The criminal Ariel Sharon elected Israelâs PM on 6 February .Israel assassinates Palestinian leader Massud Ayad, a Force 17 officer in Gaza, 13 February. Israel assassinates Palestinian leader Mahmud al-Madani, a Hamas leader in Nablus on 19 February. Random Israeli attacks & bombardment from helicopter gunships & sea. (14 February).
2002 Israel launches partial reoccupations of Jenin & Balata refugee camps. ( 27 February – 14 March)
2007 Arab Knesset member Dr. Azmi Bishara escapes Zionist attempts to assassinate him. (February)
- March 8: International Womanâs Day
- March 9: Martyrâs Day â Palestine
- March 21: AlKaramah Battle and Palestinian Motherâs Day
- March 30: Land Day
1920 First Palestinian attacks on Zionist colonies on the Syrian Boarders. (1 March). Demonstrations celebratingÂ Inauguration of Fisal as the King of Syria. (8 March)
1924 Major disturbances for second time in Jaffa in March.
1937 Zionist terrorist organizations planted explosives in Haifa and Jerusalem Markets, in March
1948 Al Qawiqji enters Palestine and assumes command of ALA units in central Palestine. Haganah declares general mobilization. Palestinian Arabs blow upÂ empty buildings of The Jewish Agency, Palestine Post Newspaper, and Keren Kayemeth ( Jewish National Fund). Arrival of Jabal Al Arab Brigade under the command of Shakib Wahab. Irgun Zionist gangs attack and commit the massacre of the villages of Beit Darras (16 March). Haganah completes destruction of Abu Kbier Quarters in Jaffa (31 March). British House of Commons votes to terminate Mandate 15 May. US delegate asks UN Security Council to suspend action on partition plan and to convene General Assembly special session to work on a trusteeship and truce if Jews also accept. Jewish Agency rejects trusteeship. Ben-Gurion declares Jewish state dependent not on UN partition decision, but on Jewish military preponderance. U.S. President Truman secretly receives Chaim Weizmann at the White House and pledges support for the declaration of a state [NOTE- according to papers at the Truman library, the Truman statement recognized the state but crossed out the word âJewishâ] at the end of the British Mandate, on May 15th. Zionists plant explosives at Al Ramleh Market, and various trains in Haifa (30, 31 March), committed massacres at Abu Kbeir near Jaffa (31 March)
1949 Israeli Negev and Golani brigades complete occupation of Negev as far as Umm Rashrash and names it Eilat. (8 March) Israeli-Lebanese Armistice Agreement: Frontier of Mandate Palestine accepted; Israel withdraws from most Lebanese territory (23 March)
1952 Arab Boycott of Israel offices established on 16 March
1954 The massacre of the town of Nahaleen (28 March)
1955 UN Security Council issued resolution #106 on 2 March , condemning Israel for raid on Gaza. Demonstrations in Gaza for the arming of the people.
1962 Battle of Tel Al Neirab, between Syria and Israel on 16 March.
1968 Major battle of Al Karamah, where the Palestinian resistance and the Jordanian army, stopped an Israeli attack on the village east of the Jordan River on ? March. UNSC resolution # 248Â March 24 condemned Israel for its massive attack on Karamah.
1970 Israeli shells residential quarters in Al Mansoura, Egypt (March)
1976 Yom Al Ard (Land Day) against land theft and other war crimes in the Gallilee by Zionist occupier on 30 March. Becomes a day of international solidarity with the Palestinian people. US vetoes UNSC resolutions 25 March to deplore Israelâs alteration of status of Jerusalem, which is recognized as an international city by most of world nations and the United Nations. (Vote: 14 to 10)
1977 13th Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo on 12-20 March, demands the creation of an independent Palestinian State.
1978 Israeli Occupation of Southern Lebanon. Bombings by Israel Air Force and commits massacres of civilians in Lebanese villages: Kawnin, Al Awzaie, AlKhayam, Rashia Church,Abbasieh, and Adloun. (14 March) UNSC Resolution 425 Called for âimmediate withdrawalâ of Israeli forces from Lebanon, 19 March.
1982 11 March: Israel outlaws National Guidance Committee on the West Bank, prompting mass demonstrations from Palestinians, leading to 28 deaths. Mayors of Al-Bireh, Nablus, Ramallah, Anabta dismissed and replaced with Israeli officials (18 Mar – 30 Apr); 24 Arab mayors suspend work in protest, & Israel dismisses mayors of Jenin (6 July) & Gaza (9 July).
1985 US vetoes UNSC resolution on 12 March condemning Israeli brutality in southern Lebanon, and denouncing Israeli âIron Fistâ policy of repression. (Vote: 11 to 1 with 3 abstentions) Israel committed air raids/massacres and planted car bombs in the Lebanese towns of Beir Al Aâbed, Seer Al Gharbiah, Zrariah, Homeen Al-Tahta, Jibaâa Yohmor, Maaâraka in March and April, killing many civilians and Hizbullah leaders.
1991 In Jerusalem, US Sec. of State Baker holds separate meetings with Zionist terrorist PM Shamir and group of 10 Palestinians, led by Faisal Husseini. (12 March)
1994 Israelis commit massacre at the Jabalya Refugee Camp. (March)
1997 Peace process deadlocked by Netanyahu’s authorization of new Jewish Colonies (settlements) in east Jerusalem (18 March ), after US vetoed two proposed UNSC resolutions on 7 March, calling for Israel to stop plans to build settlements in Jabal Abu Ghneim (Har Homa) in Jerusalem (Vote: 14 to 1) and on 21 March proposal to condemn Israeli settlement in Jabal Abu Ghuneim. (Vote: 14 to 1).
1998 Hamas Muhieddin Sharif dies in an explosion in Ramallah by the Israeli Mossad. (29 March)
2000 Pope John Paul II visits Palestine the Holy Land on 21 March.
2001 US vetoes proposed UNSC resolution March 27 that condemned Israeli violence and called for immediate cease-fire. (Vote: 9 for, 4 abstentions, 1 non-participant, 1 veto)
2002 Israel launches partial reoccupations of Jenin & Balata refugee camps. (27 February – 14 March). Massive raids on 4 March, killing hundreds of Palestinians in five days, in Gaza Strip.
2004 US vetoes a proposed resolution on 27 March that condemned the Israelâs assassination of Sheikh Ahmad Yassin in Gaza. (Vote: 11 for, 4 abstentions, 1 veto)
2005 London Meeting Supporting the Palestinian Authority convenes, attended by FMs and senior representatives from the US, Europe and Arab countries, to help PA build its institutions. (1 March) Palestinian factions meeting in Cairo declare an open-ended but conditional truce (Hudna) with Israel. 17 March
- April 3: 1936 Beginning of Great Arab Rebellion and famous 6 month Strike
- April 9: 1948 Deir Yassin
- April 15: National Anthem Day
- April 17: Prisoner Day
1918 Formation of the Moslem-Christian Committees in Jaffa and Jerusalem, spreading through the different Palestinian cities, in April.
1920 British civilian administration inaugurated, after the decision of San Remo Peace Conference on 25 April; Sir Herbert Samuel appointed as the first high commissioner.
1933 Palestinian Arab women march to holy sites to protestÂ British Lord Allenby’s visit. Tarab Abdul Hadi speaks in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and Matiel Mogannam in the Dome of the Rock mosque warning of the replacement of Arab population of Palestine with Jewish immigrants.(19 April)
1935 The Arab Palestinian Party (Al-Hizb al-Arabi al-Filistini) – Haj Amin and Jamal Al Husseini, founded April 24th.
1936 The great Arab Revolution (1936-39), formation of National Committees in cities, towns, and ruler areas, and the beginning of the famous 6 months strike demanding a Palestinian national government and an end to Zionist immigration. The British escalated oppressive measures and large parts of the Old City of Jaffa were demolished. Took three years to put down the rebellion.
1946 The Anglo-American Committee report estimates size of Jewish armed forces at around 61-69,000 and declares âprivate armiesâ illegal.Â The committee recommended admission of 100,000 Jews into Palestine and abolition of Land Transfers Regulations, and to establish a state with equally shared power between the Arabs and Jews. Proposal rejected by the Palestinians, the British and the Zionists.
1948 Haganah launches Operation Nachshon (first phase of Plan Dalet); Haganah Givâati Brigade and other units capture villages along Tel-Aviv – Jerusalem road from local Palestinian militia. Haganah startsoffensive against Palestinian town of Tiberius(5). Haganah captures Palestinian village of Castal, west of Jerusalem, expelling its inhabitants.âAbd al-Qader al-Husseini, charismatic Palestinian Resistance militia commander in Jerusalem district, is killed leading counterattack to recover Castal village. Irgun and Stern Gang massacre some 120 inhabitants in village of Deir Yassin, western suburb of Jerusalem and three miles from Castal (9). Second coastal âclearingâ operation carried out by Haganah Alexandroni brigade and other units. Attacks and expulsions drive out almost all-Palestinian communities from coastal area from Haifa to Jaffa prior to British withdrawal. UN Security Council resolutions call for a special session of General Assembly and agree to US proposal for truce to be arranged through Jewish Agency and Arab Higher Committee.Â Palestinian and Zionist leaders object to US proposals presented to Security Council for temporary trusteeship agreement. General Zionist Council decides to establish independent Jewish State in Palestine on May 16th.Â Operation Harâel under Plan Nachshon. Villages along Jerusalem road attacked and demolished (13-20). The village of Nasereddine and Qalonia, Al Lajoun massacres (13). All subsequent Haganah operations until May 15th undertaken within framework of Plan Dalet (to drive Palestinians off their lands and homes into the West Bank, by any means necessary) British troops evacuated the town of Safadon the 16th. Haganah started on the 17th of April, an offensive against town of Safad, and committed massacres at Khirbet Waâra al-Sawada (18), Husayniyya (21), and Balad ash Sheikh (25). The fall of the town of Tiberius (18). US submit Palestine trusteeship plan to UN.
British suddenly evacuate residential quarters of Haifa.Â Haganah launches Operation Misparayim to attack and occupy Haifa (22). Resistance of local Palestinian militia in Haifa collapses.Â Haifaâs Palestinian population flees under combined shelling and ground offensives.Â Launching of Operation Chametz to conquer Jaffa, Haganah attacks suburban villages of Tell Rish, Yazur and Salameh (25-31). Haganah announces coordination of plans with Irgun.Â Palestinian ALA unit under Michel Issa succeeds in fighting its way into Jaffa in order to break Haganah siege.Â The fall of the village of Samakh in northern Palestine (28). Launching Operation Yevussi for conquest of whole of Jerusalem; Haganah attacks Palestinian residential quarter of Sheikh Jarrah in East Jerusalem, cutting off the city from north, but are forced to hand it over to the British. Haganahâs attempt at cutting off Jerusalem from Jericho fails (30). All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah and residents driven out (30)
1949 April 3: Israeli-Jordanian Armistice Agreement. Jordan takes over Iraqi-held Nablus-Jenin-Tulkarem triangle but is forced to cede area around Wadi âAra; Israel controls Chadera-Afula road; existing status quo in Jerusalem accepted by the Zionist forces and Arab Legion. More areas in the Triangle were ceded by King Abdullah of Jordan to the Zionists outside the Rhodes negotiations, up to 3 April.
1950 The West Bank is formally unified with the East Bank and brought under the control of Jordan on April 24.
1953 Many Palestinian civilians killed by the Zionist terror at the Jerusalem-Damascus Gate.
1956 Many Israeli attacks and raids on Gaza.
1959 Massacre against the Palestinians in Rafah.Â Split of the Nationalists from the Central Committee of the Popular Democratic Front in the Occupied Territories. Founding of Al Ard (the Land) Movement in occupied Palestine. The Central Committee of al Ard included Habib Qahwaji, Sabri Jiryes, Saleh Bransi (Al Taybeh), Mansour Kardoush, Fakhri Jdai (Yafa), Elias Muamer, Abdel Rahman Yahia, Mahmoud Al Sorouji (Akka), Mahmoud Darwish, Fawzi Al Asmar, Tawfiq Suliman Odeh, Hanna Musmar (Al Naserah), Zaki Al Bahri Haifa, Mohamad Miaâri, and Anis Kardoush. Publishing many newspapers in the names of Al Ard, Shatha Al Ard, Al Ard Al Tayibah, Sarkhat Al Ard, Dam Al Ard, Rouh Al Ard, etc. Founding of 15 Cultural Clubs. Imprisoning of the Central Committee members. Founding of Al Ard Company in 1960. Announcing Harakat Al Ard to the Public in 1964.Â Entering the elections in the name of the Socialist List.
1961 UN Security Council issued resolution # 162 on April 11, urging Israel to comply with U.N. decisions to refrain from holding military parade in Jerusalem. The item âQuestion of Palestineâ is restated on the agenda of the U.N. General Assembly.
1962 UNSC issued reso. # 171 on Apr. 9 determiningÂ âflagrant violationâ by Israel in its attack on Syria
1965 President Bourguiba of Tunisia proposes Arab recognition of Israel on terms of the 1947 UN Partition Resolution. (March 6, April 21)
1967 Jan-Apr: Syrian-Israel border clashes, culminating on 7April when Syria fired on Israeli armored tractors in the border demilitarized zone, provoking large Israeli response in which at least 14 civilians in Siqufiya were killed; Syria accepts a UN ceasefire, but Israel rejects; and Israeli jets shot down 6 Syrian fighter planes, 4 of them over Damascus, in a series of aerial battles.
1968 UNSC resolution # 250 on Apr.27 called upon Israel to refrain from holding military parade in Jerusalem.
1969 UNSC resolution # 265 on April 1 condemned Israel for attack on Salt in Jordan. Mass demonstrations in Lebanon in support of fidaâiyyun & widespread public disorder, after army arrest a group of guerrillas; State of emergency declared. Karami resigns, but remains in post through crisis; Nasir, to keep military pressure on Israel, negotiates with Lebanese army commander, Imil Bustani, firstly a draft protocol (Apr), & after further fighting, the ceding of S. Lebanon to PLO guerrillas the âCairo Agreementâ (3Nov): the basis for relations until 1974, but also the source of Phalangist anger. Bustani is replaced by the more hard-line Jean Njaim as army commander on 7 Jan 70.
1972 King Hussein of Jordan proposes the âUnited Arab Kingdomâ, of a Palestinian (West Bank and Gaza Strip), and a Jordanian part, that both be under his rule. Strongly condemned by PLO and Egypt, fearing separate Jordan-Israel agreement. They break off relations. PLO convenes a “Palestine People’s Congress” in Cairo, on 6-10Apr, opposes the UAK. The 10th Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo on April 6. Reaffirms the opposition to the UAK. Israeli raidÂ launched against Hamma, Syria.Â 7 April, Israeli piper planes flew over the village of Akraba, spraying a chemical defoliant over the villagersâ wheat crops, forcibly confiscated 100,000 dunums (25,000 acres) of villagersâ land.
1973 Israeli Terrorist force raidedÂ Fakhani Quarters in Beirut in April and assassinated Mohammad Yousef AlNajjar, Kamal Adwan, and Kamal Naser. Israeli Mossad agents in Europe assassinated Basel Kubaissy (Iraqi) in Paris.
1974 UNSC resolution # 347 on April 24 condemns Israeli attacks on Lebanon.
1975 Disengagement agreements Israel on one side, Syria and Egypt, separately, on the other. April 14. Lebanese Right wing militias storm a bus full of Palestinian civilians and kill all the commuters at Ain El Rumaneh. The Lebanese Civil War with the Palestinians siding with the National Movement, against the Lebanese Right Wing Militias.
1980 UNSC resolution # 467 April 24 condemned Israelâs military intervention in Lebanon. (US abstained) The US vetoed UNSC a resolution on 30 April endorsing the self-determination of Palestinian People (Vote: 10 to 1 with 4 abstentions)
1981 The 15th Palestinian National Council convenes in Damascus on 11-19 April. Welcomes the Brezhnev proposal for ending Arab-Israeli conflict: based on SCR242 and endorsing Palestinian right to self-determination, Statehood & PLOâs role in the Peace Process.
1982 US vetoed a resolution on 1 April condemning Israel mistreatment of Palestinians in the occupied West Bank and Gaza strip and its refusal to abide by the Geneva Conventions Protocols of civilized nations (Vote: 14 to 1). US vetoed a resolution on 2 April condemning an Israeli soldier who shot 11 Moslem Worshipers in the Haram al Sharif near Al Aqsa mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem (Vote: 14 to 1). April 25. Israel completes withdrawal from Sinai as agreed at the Camp David, except for the issue of Taba, from which it pulls out of, in March 1989.
1987 The 18th Palestinian National Council convened in Algiers on 20-26 April, was held after a unifying conference for the General Union of Palestinian Writers and Journalist, that led the PNC to be attended by all factions of the PLO, signifying the reconciliation of the groups. The PNC gave support to the convocation of an “international conference for peace” under the auspices of the UN, and with all permanent SC members participating. Reestablished relations with Egypt.
1988 US vetoed UNSC 15 April that urged Israel to return deported Palestinians, condemned Israelâs shooting of civilians, called on Israel to uphold the Fourth Geneva Convention and called for a peace settlement under U.N. auspices. (Vote: 14 to 1). On 17 April Israeli Terrorist group landed at Hammam Al Shat area in Tunisia, to perform terrorist actions, and assassinated Khalil Al Wazir. Led to UNSC issued resolution # 611 April 25 condemning Israeli aggression against Tunisia and the assassination of Abu Jihad, with the US abstention.
1990 Settlers occupy St.Johns Hospice,Â Greek Orthodox building in old Jerusalem; all Christian shrines are closed, & Islamic Waqf close Haram al-Sharif in solidarity. (12 April)
1996 The 21st Palestinian National Council convenes in Gaza in April to delete articles of the Palestinian Charter. US Vetoed a proposed UNSC resolution 15 April condemning Israelâs closure of the occupied territories (Vote: 14 to 1). Israel launches âOperation Grapes of Wrathâ and Israel committed the horrific Air Raid massacres on the towns of Sohmor, Mansuriah, Nabatyaih, and Qana in addition to the UN quarters in Qana, when the civilians escaped Israeli aggression, escaping to UN quarters. US vetoed a resolution on 25 April condemning Israel for bombing UN quarters in Qana, South Lebanon, and the continuous Israeli attacks. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1997 US-brokered Palestinian-Israeli talks in Washington get nowhere. (11 April)
2001 Israel launches ground assaults on the refugee camps in Khan Yunis on 11Apr which destroyed homes and killed many Palestinians. Israel begins temporary occupations of parts of West Bank and Gaza put under the control of the Palestinian Authority, with 24 hr occupation of Bayt Hanun on 17April (repeated twice within 3 days).
2002 Israel committed various massacres in Jenin and its refugee camp.
2003 (29 Apr) Bush administration releasedÂ “Roadmap” for “a Permanent Two-State Solution”. In Phase I, the Palestinians to stop all attacks on Israel and confiscate all illegal weapons.Â Arab states must stop all support for violent groups, Israel must stop building new settlements and then withdraw from areas occupied since Sept 2000. Phase II to be based on conference leading to a Palestinian state, whilst Phase III would solve final status issues.
2007 Israeli planes bombard refugee camps and residential quarters in Gaza killing many innocent civilians.
- May 1: Labour Day
- May 15: Al Nakba
- May 28: P.L.O. establishment
1918 Arab-Jewish coordinating committee was formed by the British (8 May)
1921 Outbreak of demonstrations in Jaffa in May protesting large-scale Zionist immigration (21 May)
1930 The First Arab Palestinian bank founded
1935 The Second Arab Youth conference held in Haifa on May 10. Conference resolved to form Youth Conference Party.
1936 The Conference of the Palestinian National Committees (Allijan Al Qawmiah), in Jerusalem 7 May, called for No taxation without representation, Stopping Zionist Immigration, Ending the Occupation, and called for General revolt.
Arab Higher Committee (Al Lajnah Al Arabiah Al Uâlia) established.
1942 Zionist Conference, held at Biltmore Hotel in New York, formulates new policy of creating “Jewish Commonwealth” in Palestine and organizing Jewish army. (May 9-11)
1946 Palestinians strike in protest of the Anglo-American Commission in May. Simultaneous attacks by Haganah on eight major railroad and highway bridges. First Arab Summit in Anshas, Egypt, supports the Palestinian Peopleâs struggle (28 May)
1947 UN General Assembly special session on Palestine problem leads to appointment of eleven-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
1948 Lebanon and Syria decide to send troops to Palestine when the British Mandate ends on May 15th.Â Iraq dispatched troops to town of Mafraq, in TransJordan, en route to Palestine after May 15th. Three planeloads of arms for Haganah arrive from France.Â Between 175,000 and 200,000 Palestinian refugees are reported to have fled from areas taken by Zionists.Â Jewish colonists from Gush Etzion, south of Jerusalem, ambush traffic on road to city.Â The fall of towns and villages of Shajara (6), Bissan (8), and Safad (10). Zionist massacres at Ayn az Zaytun, (2), Al Abbasiyya (4), Bayt Daras (11), Burayr (12), Khubbayza (12), Abu Shusha (14), Al Tantoura (21), Al Kabri (21), and Al Khisas (25). Appointment of King Abdullah asÂ General Commander of the Arab Armies in Palestine. Unit of TransJordan Arab Legion, operating in Palestine under British command, shells Gush Etzion in retaliation for ambush. British announce it is studying transitional trusteeship regime for Palestine to take effect at end of Mandate. ALA unit under Michel Issa withdraws from Jaffa, ending cityâs resistance. Haganah enters Jaffa.(10). State of emergency declared in all Arab countries and able-bodied Palestinians barred entry to them. Egyptian parliament decides to send troops to Palestine at end of Mandate. Arrival of second and third Czech arms consignments for Haganah. Arab Legion, ALA and local militias attack and capture Jewish colonies of Etzion bloc, retaliating for attacks on Al-Khalil (Hebron) road. An official British CommuniquĂŠ announces the end of the Mandate on the eve of 14 May 1948 (12). Jaffa formally surrenders to Haganah (13). Lebanese First Lieutenant Mohamed Zughaib was killed in Malkiya battle (13). The massacre of the village of Abu Shousheh in Al Ramleh District (14). The departure of Sir Allan Kenningham the British High Commissioner in Palestine from the Port of Haifa (14). State of Israel proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 4 pm (14). Haganah launches Operation Schfifon to capture the Old City of Jerusalem.
May 15: British Mandate ends. Declaration of State of Israel comes into effect. U.S. President Truman recognizes the Zionist State of Israel. First Egyptian troops cross border into Palestine and attack colonies of Kfar Darom and Nirim in Al Naqab. Three TransJordanian Arab Legion brigades cross the Jordan River into Palestine. Lebanese troops retake Lebanese villages of Malkiya and Qadas (on Lebanese border), attacked and captured earlier by Haganah. Haganah captures Acre (17). Syrian troops retake Palestinian town of Samakh, south of Lake Tiberius, and capture Zionist colonies of Shaar Hagolan and Masada. Arab Legion units reach Latrun and consolidate blockade of coastal road to Jewish quarters in Jerusalem. Haganah breaks into the Old City of Jerusalem. Arab Legion comes to the rescue of Old City. UN Security Council appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as its mediator in Palestine (17). Egyptian Army enters Gaza (19). Another massacre in Beit Darras (21). Security Council resolution 50 calls for cease-fire (29). The Palestinian Commander Hasan Salameh is killed in the battle of Ras Al Ein near Jerusalem (31).
1949 Major demonstrations explode in the different West Bank cities calling for the rejection of the annexation, and calling for the formation of the Independent Arab Palestinian State. May 11, 1949, Israel becomes member of United Nations, by GAR 273, conditional on implementing the General Assembly Resolutions 181 and 194, which call for the right of return of the Palestinians and the establishment of a Palestinian state.
1953 295 Arabs, mostly civilians, killed by Israeli terror between January-May.
1959 The founding of The Liberation Authority (Haiaât Al Tahreer) in Gaza by Munir Al Rayes on May 15th.
1964 The Declaration of the formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Munathmat Al Tahrir Al Filasteeniah) on May 28, and the Palestinian National Covenant (Al Mithaq Al Qawmi) was declared after a convention attended by 422 Palestinian Personalities at the 1st Palestinian National Council held in Jerusalem, (28 May-2 June)
1965 The 2nd Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo – declared thatÂ Tunisian President Bouruibaâs statement calling upon the Arab states to negotiate a peaceful settlement with Israel, asÂ treason on May 31. Many Israeli attacks Arab Plan for water use of the Jordan River by diverting the river. (March, May, August)
1966 The 3rd Palestinian National Council convened in Gaza, called for arming the population in Gaza and the West Bank, on May 20th.
1968 UNSC resolution # 251 on May 2 deeply deploring Israelâs military parade in Jerusalem.Â UNSC resolution # 252Â May 21 Declared as invalid Israelâs acts to unify Jerusalem as Jewish Capital.
1970 Following Israeli attack on Lebanon in May, UNSC resolution # 279 on May 12 demanded withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon, and UNSC resolution # 280Â May 19 condemned the Israeli attack. US abstained. The 7th Palestinian National Council convened in Cairo May 30. Rejected the Rogers initiative, and affirms that only a popular war of liberation can bring a solution.
1972 Israeli raid launched against Hamma, Syria. 1st municipal elections in West Bank since 1963, announced on 26Nov, traditionalist, pro-Jordanian elite win the majority of seats. (28 March and 2 May). On 7 April, Israeli piper planes flew over the village of Akraba, spraying a chemical defoliant over the villagersâ wheat crops, and forcibly confiscated 100,000 dunums (25,000 acres) of villagersâ land.
1973 An Israeli Terrorist force assassinated Nada Yashriti.
1975 Israel commitsÂ air raid/massacre against the civilians in the Lebanese villages of Aytharoun, and Kawnin.
1978 UNSC Resolution 427Â May 13 that called for complete Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
1980 UNSC resolutions #âs # 468 on May 8 called on Israel to rescind illegal expulsion of two Palestinian Mayors, and # 469 on May 20 strongly deplored Israelâs failure to observe councilâs order not to deport Palestinians. The 15 May, andÂ Arab People Struggle OrganizationsÂ announced in Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon.
1983 May 17, Israeli Government Forces a so called_ Peace Treaty on Lebanon. (Nullified later). Geneva International Conference.
1985 The War of the Camps, on May 19 Â Amal ?] bombing and shellingÂ Palestinian camps claiming to remove to residual power of âArafat loyalists. Amal started after the Syrian blessed and sponsored “Tripartite Agreement” on May 9, between Amal (under Nabih Birri), the Lebanese Forces (under Ili Hubayqa, who had taken over from Samir Geagea) & the Progressive Socialist Party (under Walid Junblatt). Please rewrite this âit is not clear who Amal really was/is âdidnât they work for the zs against the Palestinians in Lebanon?
1988 US vetoed a UNSC on 10 May that condemned Israelâs May 2 incursion into Lebanon. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1990 Israeli troops committed a massacre against the Palestinians workers waiting at a crossroads at Rishon Le Zion (Ayoun Qara) (20 May). US vetoed UNSC resolution 31May calling for fact-finding mission on abuses againstÂ Palestinians in Israeli occupied lands. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1991 UNSC resolution # 694 May 24, deplored Israelâs deportation of Palestinians, demanded it ensure their safe and immediate return.
1994 Israel, PLO and Egypt sign First agreement for self-rule in enclaves of Gaza and Jericho, on May 4
1995 US vetoedÂ UNSC on 17 May whichÂ condemned Israelâs intention of confiscating 134 Acres of land in East Jerusalem. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1996 Benjamin Netanyahu,Â right-wing opponent of Oslo accords, elected Israeli Prime Minister. (May 29)
1999 Aihud Barak of the Labour Party becomes The Prime Minister of Israel.
2000 The Victory Day of 25 May, when the Israelis were defeated by the Arab Resistance of Lebanon and the Occupation withdrew from most of the Lebanese land.
2001 Israeli troops infiltrated Gaza and its refugee camps killing many civilians. Further invasion and attack on Rafah camp (2 May). Reportaccepted by PLO, initially rejected by Israel. Israel shoots dead 5 Palestinian policemen (some of whom were asleep at the time) at a checkpoint near Ramallah (14 May) of international commission led by former US senator George Mitchell calls for a halt to all Israeli settlement building, and greater PA control over its security forces (5 May) –
2004 UNSC issued US abstention resolution # 1544 on May 19, condemning Israelâs military invasion of Gaza, and calling for an endÂ to the home demolitions
â˘ June 1: Child Day
â˘ June 5: Al Naksa
â˘ June 25: Anti Apartheid Day
1921 The Fourth Palestinian National Congress held on 25 June in Jerusalem agrees to send the First Palestinian delegation to London to explain the Palestinian case against the Balfour Declaration. The First Conference for the Palestinian Mayors is held, continuing annually until 1948.
1923 The Sixth Palestinian National Congress meets in Jaffa on 16 June and decides to send a third Palestinian delegation to London. The National Arab Party Al Hizb Al Araby is formed.
1928 The Seventh Palestinian Congress 20 June in Jerusalem, decides to open negotiation with the British authorities about independence, or at least autonomy. The conference forms a new 48-member Executive Committee.
1930 British Authorities execute by Hanging three Palestinian resistance leaders Mohammad Jamjoum, Atta Al Zeir, and Foad Hijazi, in Acre, on Tuesday June 8th, by the British Authorities, thereby creating the first and most revered of Palestine martyrs.
1933 Zionist revisionists assassinate the prominent Zionist Labour Leader Arlozorov, who was delegated by Bin-Gurion to negotiate emigration of German Jews with the German Nazis.
1935 The Palestinian Arab Reform Party (Hizb al-Islah)- Hussein Fakhri Al Khalidi, Mqahmoud Abu Khadra, and Shibli Al Jamal, is founded on 18 June.
1938 British officer Orde Wingate organizes Special Night Squads of British and Haganah personnel for operation against Palestinian villages.
1944 Dewey, the Republican US Presidential candidate, promises the full support and assistance in the formation of the âJewish Stateâ.
1946 British White Paper on terrorism in Palestine accuses Haganah of cooperating with IZL and Stern Gang in acts of sabotage and violence, and blowing up the bridges between Palestine and the neighbouring countries.
1948 Cease fire is agreed to between Egypt and Israel (1). Count Folke Bernadotte suggests economic, military and political union of TransJordan and Palestine. The union containing Arab and âJewishâ states: Negev and central Palestine to go to Arabs, Western Galilee to Jews, Jerusalem to be part of Arab state with administrative autonomy to Jews, Haifa and Jaffa to be free ports and Lydda free airport. Rejected by both sides.
Security Council calls for prolongation of truce. Security Council resolution calls on governments and authorities concerned to issue indefinite cease-fire orders to their forces in Palestine to take effect within three weeks.First truce: 11-29 June.
1967 June 5-10, Israel attacks Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, and occupies east Jerusalem and the West Bank, until then administered by Jordan, as well as Gaza Strip, until then administered by Egypt, and the Egyptian Sinai peninsula, and Syria’s Golan Heights. 14 June U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution # 237, which inter alia, calls upon Israel to facilitate the return of the new 410,000 refugees.âIsraeliâ forces kill 11 and wound 24, in attack on the UNEF Indian Brigade between June-July. On 27 June, The Israeli government adopts a law that enables it to extend its laws and jurisdictions on Jerusalem, after expanding its area 10 times, and demolishing the Arab quarters of Magharebah. The Zionists begin confiscating more Arab Palestinian lands and start building colonies on area in Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem.
1974 June 12, 12th Palestinian National Council held in Cairo adopts a modified political program. A split of a small group in Fatah, to form Fatah-the Revolutionary Council.
1979 UNSC resolution # 450 on 14 June Calls on Israel to stop attacking Lebanon.
1980 June 2, Mayors Bassam al-Shakâa (Nablus) & Karim Khalaf (Ramallah) are maimed by bombs, later attributed to Israeli settlers. Ibrahim Tawil (al-Bireh) narrowly escapes.
UNSC resolution # 471 on June 5 expresses deep concern at Israelâs failure to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention. Assassination of Yousef Mubarak in Nicosia, and Naim Khader in June in Brussels, by the Mossad. 13 June EEC adopts the Venice Declaration: recognizes Palestinian self-determination, calls for multilateral negotiations and criticizes Israeli occupation and settlement policies. 30 June The Knesset adopts the Basic Law on Jerusalem in which it âofficiallyâ annexes the pre-1967 eastern (Palestinian) part of Jerusalem and illegally declares Jerusalem the eternal, undivided capital of Israel. UNSC resolution # 476 on 30 June reiterates that Israelâs claims to Jerusalem are ânull and voidâ
Founding of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad Movement.
1981 UNSC resolution # 487 on 19 June strongly condemned Israel for its attack on Iraqâs civilian nuclear facilities.
1982 Assassination by the Mossad agents of Hussein Kamal in June in Rome, Mohammad in Paris, Saad Sayel in October in Beirut, and Suhail Abul Kul in Nicosia. 6 June Israeli forces launch “Operation Peace for Galilee” invasion of Lebanon. UNSC issues many resolutions – in that regard UNSC # 509 6 June demands Israel withdraw its forces forthwith and unconditionally from Lebanon, and # 515 on 29 July with US abstention, demands Israel must lift its siege of Beirut. While the US vetoes three attempted resolutions against the Israeli attacks on Lebanon: on 8 June a resolution is passed urging sanctions against Israel if it does not withdraw from its invasion of Lebanon. (Vote: 14 to 1), and again on 26 June urging sanctions against Israel if it does not withdraw from its invasion of Beirut, Lebanon. (Vote: 14 to 1).
1989 The US vetoes a UNSC resolution, on 9 June which strongly deplored Israelâs violation of the human rights of the Palestinians(Vote: 14 to 1),
2001 Through mediation of head of CIA, George Tenet, a joint ceasefire (between Israel and the Palestinians in WB and Gaza) is declared (13June).
2002 Israel begins construction of the Apartheid Wall in the West Bank, ostensibly for security reasons to bar suicide bombers from entering Israel; Palestinians and several international human rights organizations claim the wall is a collective punishment measure that will eventually delineate the final borders of Israel. (June) [ why not call it the Annexation Wall---?âegâŚbegins construction of a wall of annexation, ostensibly forâŚ â]
U.S. President George W. Bush in a speech on 24 June, 2002, announces âThe Road Mapâ, in which he calls for an independent Palestinian state side by side with Israel in peace, that would destroy any opposition to colonial hegemony by removing hurdles and obstacles, such as the right of return. Israeli forces re-occupy the West Bank in an operation called Determined Path. (June/July)
2004 Israelis committ many massacres at Gaza and its refugee camps and Beit Hanoun (June).
2006 Israeli troops committ horrific massacres at Gaza and its refugee camps, Gaza Beach, and Beit Hanoun in June and November.
â˘ July 1: Heritage Day
â˘ July 6: Flag Day
â˘ July 12: Cooperative Work Day
1912 Leo Motzkin suggests that the Arab-Jewish problem was soluble if the Arabs would be willing to resettle in the uncultivated lands around Palestine. (July 12)
1922 Arab Executive Committee meets (23-27 June) and calls for a general strike on 13 July. A Palestinian Delegation is sent to the League of the Nations in Luzerne. The League of Nations Council approves the Mandate for Palestine. (24 July)
1923 The first Arab Christian Orthodox conference is held in Haifa on 15 July.
1928 The Conference of the Palestinian Muslim Youth Clubs held in Jaffa.
1930 A conference for the Labour Unions was held in Haifa.
1933 The National Arab Exhibition opens 7 July.
1946 Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry into Zionist immigration and the Morrison-Grady Plan. The Irgun blows up the King David hotel in Jerusalem, including British head quarters. Many people killed. (22 July)
1948 The departure of the last British soldier on the first of July. The occupation of Lyd and Ramleh and a major massacre was committed (11 and 12 July) and at the Dahmash Mosque in Led, and other massacres at Qazaza (9 July), Al Tira (16 July), and Ijzim (24 July). The Palestinian leader Abdel Rahim Mahmoud is killed in the battle to liberate the village of Shajarah (13 July). The fall of the town of Al Naserah (Nazareth) (16 July).
Second truce: 18 July -15 October; 15 Zionist terrorists poison the wells with Typhus and Cholera, in Lyd and Ramleh. The Arab League forms a Civil Administration to run the daily functions of the Palestinians in the remaining un-occupied areas.
1949 July 20, Syrian-Israeli Armistice Agreement: Demilitarized zones established around âEn Gev and Dardara.
1963 Founding the General Union of Palestinian Women-GUPW (Al Ithad Al Aâm Lil Marah Al Filisteeniah) on 15 July, 1963.
1968 The 4th Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo on 10-17July. Palestinian groups are awarded half the seats, with Fatah predominant; the National Charter (renamed watani, earlier qawmi) revised to affirm the centrality of armed struggle.
1969 UNSC resolution # 267 on 3July censures Israel for administrative acts to change the status of Jerusalem.
1971 The 9th Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo on 7July , concerned primarily with national unity.
1972 The first conference of the General Union of Palestinian Teachers held in Damascus on 5 July 5.
1980 A conference is held in the 1948 areas attended by many of the Arab masses. It issues a covenant calling for the protection of the Arabsâ civil and political rights, and demanding that Tax money be spent proportionally to the Arab towns, villages and cities, and against Land expropriation.
1981 The Israeli government dismisses the mayors of Jenin (6July) & Gaza (9July), and replaces them. Israel commits an air raid/massacre against the civilians in the Lebanese Cities and Al-Fakhani area and Beirut in general.
1987 Assassination of Naji Al Ali in London by the Mossad.
1988 King Hussein of Jordan ends the Unity between Jordan and the West Bank on 30 July.
1989 Shaykh âAbd al-Karim Ubayd, the Hizbullah leader in Lebanon, is kidnapped by Israeli commandos, on 28 July 1990 Israel committs an air raid/massacre against the civilians in the Lebanese town of Siddiqin.
2001 Israel moves heavy armour around the PA areas in the West Bank and steps up its assassination campaign, bombing the office of Jamal al-Mansur in Nablus, killing him and other officials, journalists and two children outside (31 July).
2005 Israel confiscates 93 dunums of Palestinian agricultural land in July, adjacent to the colonies near Hebron.
2006 Israel wages a terrorist war against Lebanon on 12 July and commits horrific massacres against the Lebanese towns, cities, and villages in the south. The US vetoes a proposed UNSC resolution on 13 July to stop the Israeli Aggression on Gaza.(Vote:10 for, 4 abstentions, 1 veto)
- August 12: Tal Al Za3tar
- August 21: Burning of Al Aqsa
- August 23: Expelled People Day (Al Mub3adien)
- August 26: Al Buraq uprising (1929)
1840 Lord Palmerstone, British Foreign Minister-later Prime Minister, sent letter on 11 August, to his Ambassador in Istanbul, to encourage the Sultan to allow and bless the settlement of the European Jews with their wealth in Palestine, to prosper the economy, and to create a barrier against Muhammad Aliâs advancement.
1919 The Paris Peace Conference decided to send an international commission of inquiry to assess the aspirations of the peoples of the East, led by Americans Henry C. King and Charles R. Crane as England and France declined to participate. The King-Crane Commission recommended that, âThe project of making Palestine, distinctly a Jewish commonwealth should be given upâ, the report was kept secret till 1922.
1922 Fifth Palestinian National Congress convened in Nablus on 22 August decided on the economic boycott of Zionists. The Arab Palestinian Conference was held in Geneva on 25 August. Conference consisted of delegates from Palestine Syria and Lebanon. It called for ending the occupation and the mandate and nullifying the Balfour declaration, and the unity of Greater Syria.
1932 The Arab Independence Party (Hizb al-Istiqlal)-Awni Abdul Hadi, was founded on 2August, by members of the Old anti Ottoman movement of Al Arabia Al Fatat.
1945 The Jewish Agency Executive Committee, agreed to consider the establishment of a Jewish state on an “adequate part of Palestine”.
1946 The Sixth Palestinian Delegation sent to London to call for Palestinian independence.
The Arab Labour Conference held in Jaffa.
1948 The Egyptian commander Major Ahmad Abdel Aziz killed 22 August
1953 The Zionists under Sharon committed horrific massacre at Al Bureij Refugee camp in Gaza. (31 August)
1963 The founding of the General Union of Palestinian Labourers – GUPL (Al Ithad Al Aâm Lil Omal Al Filisteenien) on August 3rd. Israeli fighter plans raided the town of Maysaloun in Syria.
1967 The Fourth Arab Summit Conference was held in Khartoum, on 29 August, establishing the basis for Arab solidarity over the next 7 years. Egypt-Saudi-Jordan reconciliation, uniting against Israel with the â3 Noâsâ: to reconciliation, negotiation & recognition of Israel.
1968 Israel attacks the Jordanian city of Al Salt on Aug. 4, and UNSC resolution # 256 condemned Israeli raids on Jordan as âflagrant violation. An Israeli air raid launched against Al Ghouta area a suburb of Damascus.
1969 Fire at al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem destroyed much of the structure, by an arsonist (21 August). UNSC resolution # 270 on 26August condemns Israel for attack on villages in southern Lebanon.
1970 The extra-ordinary Palestinian National Council convenes in Amman in August.
1973 UNSC resolution # 337 on August 15 condemning Israel for violating Lebanon sovereignty.
1976 Starting 2 August, the Syrian army along with Lebanese Right wing militias besiege, and later enter the Palestinian Tel AlZatar refugee camp, causing severe damage and many fatalities after months of honourable Palestinian resistance.
1978 Assassination of Izzeddine Al Qalaq in Paris in August by the Mossad. Mustafa Dudin establishes a âVillage Leagueâ in Dura village near Hebron, an anti-PLO armed group. Taken up by Israelis after 1982, when civilian administration of West Bank established, using Village League to remove municipalitiesâ functions.(1 August)
1980 UNSC resolutions #478 – 20 August âCensures in strongest termsâ Israel for its claim to Jerusalem in its âbasic lawâ. (US abstained)
1982 UNSC resolution # 517 – 4 August Censuring Israel for failing to obey U.N. resolutions and demanding Israel withdrawal of its forces from Lebanon with the US abstention, and # 518 on 12 August demands Israel to cooperate fully with U.N. forces in Lebanon. First Palestinian groups forced to pull out of Lebanon on 21 August .
1983 US vetoed a UNSC on 2 August condemning continued Israeli settlements in occupied Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, denouncing them as an obstacle to peace. (Vote: 13 to 1 with 3 abstentions)
1986 Israel commits air raid/massacre against the civilians in the Lebanese towns of Seer, and Tiri
1993 The PLO announced it reached a secret agreement with Israel in Oslo and came up with a Declaration of Independence on 26 August. Israeli forces killed Imad Aqel in Gaza.
1994 August 29: Israel-Palestinian Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers & Responsibilities signed at Erez: transfer of 5 civilian authorities to PNA.
1995 August 27: Israel-Palestinian Protocol on Further Transfer of Powers & Responsibilities signed at Cairo.
2001 Israel launched campaign seizing Orient House in Jerusalem and bombing Ramallah police HQ (10 August), and invading Jenin to destroy the police station (14 August); followed by invasion of Al-Khalil Hebron (23 August). Israelis kill Abu Ali Mustafa (PFLP) by bombing his office in Ramallah (27 August), and killing 11 Palestinians in early September. Israel and the US pull out of UN World Conference on Racism, 31 August-9 September, ostensibly over criticism of Israel in draft declaration.
2002 Continuing Palestinian negotiations in Gaza City on a common line, with 10 August draft agreement of the 12 major factions (plus independents) declaring the national goals as a Palestinian State in the West Bank & Gaza Strip, and the return of refugees; Hamas initials it, but then produces an alternate, more ambiguous, draft.
2005 In August Israel completes the withdrawal of 15,000 settlers from the Gaza Strip and three minor colonies in the northern West Bank.
2006 Israel wages a terrorist war against Lebanon on 12 July and commits horrific massacres against the Lebanese towns, cities, and villages, Luweyzeh (1 August ), Maaroub (1 August ), Baalbeck (Night 1 -2 August), Qaa (4 August ), Taybeh (4 August ), Ayta Shaab (4 August ), Ansar (6 August ), Al-Jubbeyn (6 August ), Houla (7 August), Ghassaniyeh (7 August ), Ghaziyeh (7-8 August), Kfartebneet (7 August), Breetal (7, 13 vAugust), Shiyyah (7 August ), Mashgharah (9 August ), Al-Hayssa ( 11 August ), Marjeyoun convoy (11 August ), Rweyss (13 August ), Jamaliyyeh (14 August ). UNSC Resolution # 1701 calls for Cease Fire in South Lebanon, on 11 August.
- September 17: Black September and Sabra & Shatilla
- September 22: All Palestine Government (1948)
- September 28: Intifadat Al Aqsa
- September 30: Muhamad Jamal Al-Dura Day
1919 The Versailles Treaty puts Syria and Lebanon under the French Mandate, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine under the British Mandate conditional on implementing the Balfour declaration. A controversial Agreement signed between King Faisal, and Haiem Wiseman.(September)
1922 Removing the area of Trans-Jordan from the Balfour Declaration (16 September). US Congress endorses the Balfour Declaration. First British census of Palestine shows population of 757,182, with 78% Muslim, 11% Jewish and 9.6% Christian.
1932 A Political Conference of the Orthodox Clergy held in Ramallah on 13 September.
1948 A Report by UN mediator Count Bernadotte, rejected by both the Arab League and Israel, proposed new partition of Palestine: 1- That a Palestinian state to be annexed to TransJordan to include Negev, al-Ramla and Lydda; 2- A Jewish state in all of Galilee; 3- The Internationalization of Jerusalem; return or compensation of refugees (September 16). Count Bernadotte murdered in Jerusalem on 17 September by Stern Gang. On 14 September 1988, new information published in the Israeli press confirming Lehi underground responsible for murder of Swedish UN mediator Count Folke Bernadotte in 1948. Sweden demands Israel issue an apology. Count Bernadotte replaced by his American deputy Ralph Bunche (September 17). The General Popular Conference was held in Gaza on 23 September after call of Arab Higher Committee, conference concluded 1 October 1 forming the âAll Palestine Governmentâ, under presidency of Ahmad Hilmi Abdul Baqi.
1950 Israeli massacre against Arab Al Azzazmeh in Sinai and Naqab (Negev)
1952 Arab League dissolves âAll Palestine Governmentâ, replacing representation of the Palestinian issue by the Arab governments.
1953 The American Johnston Project calls for diverting the Jordan River, and the redistribution of the waters in the region. Israel illegally begins diverting waters of Jordan River in September. Israel Demolishes village of Kufur Burum 16 September.
1963 Ahmad Al-Shuqairy appointed Palestinian representative at the Arab League 19 September following death of the former representative, Ahmad Hilmi Abdul Baqi.
1964 Formation of Palestinian Liberation Army-PLA (Jaish Al Tahreer Al Filasteeni), in 3 localities: Ein Jalout forces in Gaza and Egypt, Hittin forces in Syria, and Al Qadisiah forces in Iraq, under the command of Wajih Al Madani on 15 September. The Second Arab Summit Conference held in Alexandria, 5 September 1964 endorses PLO as the representative of the will of the Palestinian people. Establishes the Palestine Liberation Army. Launches counter-diversionary scheme for tributaries of River Jordan.
1967 West Bank leaders establish the Islamic Board in Jerusalem, under Shaykh âAbd al-Hamid al-Saâih. Makes first major West Bank declaration against the occupation (24 July). Board to administer Muslim affairs in West Bank; retains close ties with Jordan. Saâih deported to Jordan with Hilmi Muhtasib taking over as head of the Board. (23 September)
1968 Founding of Palestinian Planning Center on 18 September.
1969 The 6th Palestinian National Council convenes in Cairo on 1 September, after Israeli arsonist sets fire to Al-Aqsa Mosque. UNSC resolution # 271- 15 September condemns Israelâs failure to obey U.N. resolutions on Jerusalem (US abstained).
1970 UNSC resolution # 285 on 5 September, demands immediate Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon (US abstained). Civil war erupts in Jordan between Jordanian army and Palestinian forces, ending in evacuation of Palestinian forces to Lebanon (September 1970 & July 1971). Jordanian Army Massacre against Palestinian Refugee Camps 17 September. Irregular Emergency Arab Summit Conference held in Cairo, on 27 September, ends first round of fighting, followed by Amman agreement, and death of Gamal Abdel Nasser 28 September.
1971 Black September Organization (Aylol Al Aswad) formed. UNSC resolution # 298 25 September deploring Israelâs changing status of Jerusalem.
1972 The Founding conference of the General Union of Palestinian Writers and Journalists held in Beirut on 6 September. The US vetoes UNSC (#?) resolution on 10 September condemning Israelâs attacks against southern Lebanon, and Syria. (Vote: 13 to 1 with 1 abstention). President Anwar Sadat proposes the formation of a Palestinian government in exile. (28 September)
1974 September U.N. General Assembly places âQuestion of Palestineâ on agenda after 22 years at request of 55 members. Israel commits air raid/massacre against civilians in Lebanese village of Yarin. UNGR Res. 3210 (UN General Assembly) recognizes PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and given UN observership status. The Rejection Front (Jabhat Al Rafd) formed from Palestinian organizations (PFLP, PFLP-G.C., PSLP, and AFLP) opposing the capitulative resolutions (the 10 points program) declared by the P.L.O. leadership (29 September).
1976 Palestine becomes a permanent member of the Arab League on 6 September.
1978 September 17, Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin sign US-sponsored Camp David peace accords.
1982 UNSC resolution # 520 on 17 September condemning Israeli attack into West Beirut. US vetoes three attempted resolutions against Israeli attacks on Lebanon: 8 June urged sanctions against Israel if it did not withdraw from its invasion of Lebanon. (Vote: 14 to 1), 26 June urged sanctions against Israel if it did not withdraw from its invasion of Beirut, Lebanon. (Vote: 14 to 1), 6 August urged cut-off economic aid to Israel if it refused to withdraw from its occupation of Lebanon (Vote: 11 to 1 with 3 abstentions). The resumed (Second session) Arab Summit Conference held in Fez, on 6 September, endorses the Prince Fahd Plan. Palestinian refugee camps in Sabra and Shatila, suffer massacre of all 2,500 inhabitants (official estimated number) and destruction of those camps. These massacres of un-armed men, women and children, commanded by Ariel Sharon, at that time defense minister of “Israel”, 17 September .
1984 US vetoes a UNSCR on 6 September deploring Israelâs brutal massacre of Arabs in Lebanon and urges its withdrawal. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1985 US vetoes a UNSCR on 13 September denouncing Israelâs violations of human rights in the occupied territories. (Vote: 10 to 1 with 4 abstentions)
1986 UNSC resolution # 587 on 23 September taking note of previous calls on Israel to withdraw itâs forces from Lebanon and urges all parties to withdraw. US abstains.
1987 Israeli Air Raid kills civilians at Ain Al-Hillweh (Palestinian Camp).
1990 Israeli troops committ a massacre against Palestinians in Ayoun Qara.
1992 Ten Palestinian groups – PFLP, DFLP, PLFP-GC, PPSF, PLF, Fatah-Uprising, PRCP, al-Saâiqa, Hamas & Islamic Jihad (âthe Damascus 10â) – form National Democratic & Islamic Front in Damascus to oppose Madrid talks. Significant for cooperation between secularists & Islamists.
1993 September 13, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat sign “Declaration of Principles,” also known as Oslo I agreement, in Washington providing for a five-year transition towards talks on final peace settlement.
1995 September 28, Further interim accord, dubbed Oslo II provides for phased Israeli withdrawal from West Bank starting with major towns.
1996 The Israeli Government opens entrance of a tunnel passing under wall of Al-Haram Al Sharif, in October, process temporarily suspended due to huge Palestinian resistance. UNSC issues R #1073, (with US abstention) 28 September. Calls for immediate cessation and reversal of all acts for the opening of tunnel in vicinity of Al Haram Al Sharif. US vetoes 28 September UNSCR condemning Israeli settlements in Ras Al Amud in Jerusalem. (Vote: 14 to 1 )
2000 Camp David ll, meeting of Arafat, and Palestinians, Barak, and Israelis, Clinton, and US, at Camp David, Md. fails to iron out problems of borders, refugees, and Jerusalem. 28 September, 2000 (Intifadat Al Aqsa). The Intifada begins after Arial Sharon trespassed into Al Haram Al Sharief (The Holy Sanctuary)-that includes Al Aqsa and the Dome of the Rock Mosques-in Jerusalem. New Intifada starts in the 1967, and 1948 areas of Palestine, hundreds of Palestinians killed, and thousands injured, at Al Haram Al Shareif in Jerusalem and at Refugee Camps in Gaza. The UNSC issues resolution # 1322 7 October, deploring provocation at Al Haram Al Sharif, condemns use of excessive force against Palestinians, and calls upon Israel to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention, with the US abstaining. Cold blooded murder of 12 year old child Mohammad Jamal Al Dura, under the exposed protection of his father, shows the real humanity of the Zionists, of the Israeli Army and Police, on 30 September. This atrocity caught on TV and seen around the world.
2002 September 19, Israeli forces destroy Arafat’s entire compound in Ramallah except for his office and maintain siege and curfew tactics. Mass Street protests in West Bank on 21 September. UNSC resolution #1435 (24September; 14-0-US abstaining) demands Israel end the siege. Compound siege is lifted on 29 September, though curfews remain in force. Israeli attacks on Gaza city (23 September). Attack on Kiryat Arba colony kills 12 Israeli soldiers and militiamen, including area commander Dror Weinberg; in response to assassination of regional commander Iyad Sawalha in Jenin. Sharon declares 1997 Hebron protocol null and void, Israel to expand its Hebron settlements.
2003 The US vetoes a proposed UNSC resolution 16 September that would have condemned Israeli proposal to expel or assassinate the Palestinian Chairman/President Yaser Arafat. (Vote: 11 for, 3 abstentions, 1 veto)
2005 After 38 years of military presence in the Gaza Strip, Israel leaves but resumes bombing of Gaza areas in September.
- October 14: Qibya Day
- October 24: U.N. Day
- October 26: Kufur Qasem Day
1927 A conciliation conference was held between the Executive Committee and the Opposition in Wadi Hnin.
1928 First attempt by some Zionist religious leaders to change âstatus quoâ at Wailing Wall as a part of the Arab Quarter.
1929 October 16 Jerusalem – First Arab Palestinian Women Union in Palestine founded at the First Arab Palestinian Women conference. Zalikha Al Shihabi elected as President.
1930 Clashes erupted in Jaffa and spread to Jerusalem as reaction to huge influx of immigrants. British kill and injure many Palestinians. Musa Kazim Al Husseini injured. Died 5 months later due to injury.
1944 October 16 – A confidential report submitted to the Haganah and Jewish Agency by Roberto Bachi, an expert in demography.Â Bachi proposes Arab âtransferâ to ensure âJewish majorityâ.
1948 October 1 A conference is held in Amman on the orders of King Abdullah in opposition to the Gaza conference to nullify its legitimacy of representing Palestinians. The Amman conference lasts for 2 hours and delegates to King Abdullah the authority to speak on behalf of the Palestinian people. October 14 UN Security Council resolution calls for withdrawal of forces to positions occupied prior to October 14, and the establishment of permanent truce lines. October 14, The siege of Falujah begins, the town where Jamal Abdel Naser and his comrades were resisting steadfastly. October 19 UNSC resolution #59 notes with concern Israelâs failure to report on the assassination of Count Bernadotte the U.N. mediator. October 21 The fall of Beir Al Sabe (Beersheba). Zionist massacers at Beir Al Sabe (October 21), Safsaf, Al Dawayima, Eilaboun, Jish, and Majd al Kurum (October 29), Arab al Samniyya, Saliha, and Saâsaâ (October 30), Houla in Lebanon, Baâna, and Dayr Al Asad (October 31). October 31 Villages of Iqret and Kufur Baraam occupied.
1953 October 15 Israeli forces raid Palestinian West Bank village of Qibya near Hebron, massacring 53 Palestinian civilians.
1956 October 10 Qalqilia massacre. October 29 Israel massacres 49 Palestinians in the Village of Kufur Qasem. October 30 Israel expells the villagers of Al Baqara and Al Ghanama to Syria. October 29 Second Arab-Israeli war (The Tripartite Aggression) often known as Suez crisis. After the nationalization of Suez Canal Company, Israel with Britain and France attack Egypt. Israel occupies Gaza Strip (under Egyptian administration since 1949) and Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. Israel subsequently withdraws on March 8 1957.
1973 October 6 Egypt and Syria attempt to liberate territories Israel occupied 1967.
1985 October 1 Israeli raid on PLO Head Quarters in Tunis. October 4 UNSC resolution #573 condemning the Israeli attack. US abstains.
1990 October 8 Al Haram Al-Sharif massacre. 21 Palestinians killed, 150 wounded by Israeli forces when Palestinians protest at âTemple Mt Faithfulâ Jewish group who attempt to place a cornerstone for the construction of the â3rd Templeâ. UNSC condemns Violence of Israeli security forces in 2 resolutions #672 on October 12, and # 673 on October 24. Latter deplored Israelâs refusal to cooperate with the U.N.
1991 October 9 Hundreds of Jewish settlers invade Silwan, on outskirts of East Jerusalem, and occupy 8 Palestinian homes. October 10 Palestinian negotiators Faisal Husseini, Hanan Ashrawi, Zakariya al-Agha, Sari Nusseibeh meet Secretary of State Baker in Washington to discuss Palestinian participation in proposed peace conference. October 19 Palestinian leader Faisal Husseini submits list of 14 Palestinian delegates to peace conference to US consul in Jerusalem. October 23 Members of the Jewish Ateret Cohanim Seminary move into a house in the Muslim quarter of East Jerusalem. October 30 U.S. initiates International Peace Conference in Madrid, Spain. Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and PLO delegation under Jordanian umbrella attend the conference. Russia and U.S. are co-chairs.
1994 October 26 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordanâs King Hussein sign a Peace Treaty between Jordan and Israel.
2002 October 7 Israeli attacks Khan Yunis.
2003 October 8 U.S. vetoes UNSC resolution on condemning Israeli air raid on Damascus suburbs. October 14 U.S. vetoes UNSC resolution condemning Israel for building an annexation/apartheid wall on Palestinian lands.
2005 Israeli troops committ horrific massacres in Gaza and the Refugee Camps (October, November).
- November 1: Martyr Child Day
- November 11: Al Takaful Al Osari Day
- November 15: Independence Day
- November 29: International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
1917 November 2 The British Foreign Minister, pledges British support for a âJewish national home in Palestineâ known as the Balfour Declaration when Jews in Palestine were less than 8% of the total population. The Palestinian population was 750,000 at the time.
1918 November 2 Reorganizing the Ottoman Turkish governances (Wilayat) by Allied occupation forces. Separating the two regions of Nablus and Acre from the governance (Wilayat) of Beirut.
1927 Palestinian Journalists hold a conciliation and unity conference calling in Jaffa.
1930 Palestinian Christian Orthodox conference held in Jerusalem.
1935 November 17 Conference for Arab Christian Orthodox Youth held in Ramleh.
1938 November 8 Blue paper of Sir Woodhead of the Royal Commission concluds that a voluntary âtransferâ is not going to happen and compulsory transfer of population was ruled out. So the commission presented another plan for the partitioning of Palestine to include a Jewish state.
1947 November 17 Golda Mayer and King Abdullah of Jordan meet. Abdullah agrees to a Jewish state in return for annexing all Arab parts of the partition plan to Trans-Jordan. November 29 UNGA Resolution 181 recommends slight variant of UNSCOP partition plan by 33 to 13 votes with 10 abstentions. Arab Higher Committee rejects Partition Plan. Arab representatives walk out of assembly.
1948 November 15 Villagers of Iqrit and Kufur Baraam expelled.
1948 – 1949 Between November 1948 and mid 1949, Israeli troops expel inhabitants of villages that are 5-15 km inside Lebanese border, followed by inhabitants of Palestinian villages in Galilee.
1948 Massacres at Abu Zreik (1), and Arab Al Mawasi (2).
1953 November 24 UNSC resolution #101 expresses âstrongest censure of Israel for Qibya raid”.
1956 Massacres in towns of Khan Younis and Rafah.
1957 November 21 Israel finishes drying of Al Houleh Lake.
1966 November 13 Israeli forces attack Palestinian West Bank village of Al Samuâ causing heavy casualties and dynamiting 125 houses. November 25 UNSC #228 censures Israelâs attack on Samu.
1967 November 22, UNSC #242 reiterates âthe Inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by warâ.
1975 November 10 UNGA adopts 3379 (XXX) which determines that Zionism is a form of Racism.
1977 November 19-21 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat makes shameful visit to Zionist State.
1978 November 29 UN declares date The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People.
1988 November 15 At end of 19th Palestinian National Council in Algiers, which started 12 November, PLO declares Palestinian Statehood, endorses UNGA Partition Resolution 181 and UNSC #242 recognizing the Zionist state of Israel.
1991 November 19 Israeli police and border guards raid offices of Islamic court in East Jerusalem seizing hundreds of documents in search of “subversive” literature. Documents include court records documenting Palestinian land and property rights.
2002 1, 15 November Israeli attacks on Rafah.
2006 November 8 US vetoes UNSC resolution condemning Israeli actions in Gaza. (Vote: 10 for, 4 abstentions, 1 veto)
2007 Annapolis Conference suggests that the “Road Map” be implemented in order to reenergize stagnant “peace process”.
- December 8: Intifada Day
- December 10: Human Rights Day
1917 December 7 Surrender of Jerusalem to Allenby by mayor Hussein Salim Al Husayni (son of Salim al Husayni who was Jerusalemâs mayor in 19th century).
1920 December 13 Third Palestinian National Congress held in Haifa stressed autonomy of Palestine and elected Executive Committee which led Palestinian political movement from 1920 to 1935.
1920 December 23 Marking borders of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Palestine.
1931 December 16 Jerusalem Pan Islamic conference with participation of delegates from 22 countries in support of the Palestinian people.
1947 Haganah calls up all Jews in Palestine ages 17-25 to register for military service. Launches Plan Gimmel, designed to destabilize Palestinian population and occupy strategic positions in country.Arab League organizes Arab Liberation Army (ALA), a voluntary force of Arab irregulars under guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawiqji to help Palestinians resist partition. Palestinians start three-day strike protesting UN partition resolution.Â Inter-communal clashes result in death of eight Zionists and six Palestinians. Haganah attacks the Abu Kbier quarters in Jaffa, and commits a massacre. December 11 Zionists bomb buses in Haifa. December 19 Haganah attacks village of Khiskhas (Safad district) and commits a massacre. December 20 Haganah attacks village of Qazaza (Ramleh district) and commits a massacre. December 28, 31 Zionist gangs attackand commit a massacre in the villages of Beit Soriek and Balad Al Sheikh. Arab Higher Committee organizes 275 local committees for defense of Palestinian towns and villages. Irgun gang attacks the village of Beit Darras. Two Syrian small units enter Palestine under the commands of officers Adib Shishakly (Al Yarmouk Second unit) and Mohammad Safa (Al Yarmouk First unit).
1948 December 10 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is announced and includes Right to Return. December 10 The Convention against torture. December 11 UNGA 194 affirms the right of the Palestinians to return to their original homes. December 1, 15, 25 – Three conferences held in Palestinian cities of Jericho, Ramallah and Nablus to reconfirm the earlier decisions of Amman conference and to call for unification of East and West Banks of Jordan River, and to hold general elections to elect representatives for one parliament. December 18 The massacre of the village of Al Khassas. December 22 – January 6, Operation Horev launched to drive Egyptians out of southern coastal strip and the Naqab. Israeli troops move into Sinai until British pressure forces withdrawalÂ (December). Israeli Army Alexandroni brigadeâs attack on isolated Egyptian forces in Faluja pocket is repulsed. Massacers committed at Um Alshouf (30 December), and Jeez (31 December).
1949 December 8 UNGA 302 UN adopts UNRWA which was established specifically for Palestinian Refugees on May 1. December 19 UNGA 303 calls for the Internationalization of Jerusalem.
1954 Massacre at town of Qabatia.
1958 December 8 air battle between Egyptian and Israeli forces over Al Ariesh. Large conference held in Nazareth against Military Rule. The conference included Arab and Israeli left groups. Confrontations between Zionist Occupation Forces and demonstrators in Nazareth.
1968 December 28 Israeli forces destroy Lebanese civilian planes at Beirut International Airport. December 31 UNCS262 Condemns Israel for attack on Beirut Airport.
1969 December 9 UNGA adopts 2535 (XXIV) reaffirming the inalienable rights of the people of Palestine.
1970 December 8 UNGA A/RES/2672 (XXV) A-D reaffirms right to return.
1975 Municipal elections in West Bank: Israel had deported some of the major nationalist challengers (Dr Ahmad Hamzi Natsche from Hebron & Dr âAbd al-âAziz al-Hajj from al-Birah both sent to Lebanon), but, with 72% turnout, PLO & nationalist candidates largely successful, eg Bassam al-Shakâa (Nablus), Fahd Qawasma (Hebron), Karim Khalaf (Ramallah), Ibrahim Tawil (al-Bira). Together with other notables, these mayors form the National Guidance Committee in October 78.
1980 December 19 UNCS 484 declares imperative that Israel re-admit two Palestinian mayors.
1981 December 14 Israel unilaterally annexes Golan Heights. December 17 UNSC #497 decids annexation ânull and voidâ and demands Israel rescind its decision forthwith. December 19 UNSC #498 calls on Israel to withdraw from Lebanon.
1986 December 8 UNSC #592 strongly deplores killing of Palestinian students at Bir Zeit University by Israeli troops. US abstains.Â Israel commits an air raid massacre against Palestinian civilians in Naher Al-Bared Refugee Camp, Lebanon.
1988 December 8 Start of Intifada or uprising against Israeli occupation in Gaza Strip, West Bank and East Jerusalem. Israeli attempts to crush the Intifada condemned around the world.December 21 Major Demonstrations in 1948 areas in support of Intifada on Peace Day. December 22 UNSC 605 strongly deplores Israelâs policies and practices denying human rights to Palestinians. US abstains. December 14 US vetoes a UNSC resolution deploring Israelâs December 9 commando raids on Lebanon. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1990 December 20 UNSC #681 deplores Israelâs resumption of deportation of Palestinians and violation of Fourth Geneva Convention.
1992 December 17 Israel expells 415 Palestinians to Marj Al Zohour in Lebanon. December 19 UNSC #799 deplores these deportations and calls for their immediate return.
1993 December 4 US vetoes UNSC resolution urging Israel to allow the return of 101 Palestinian Deportees. (Vote: 14 to 1)
1994 December 27 West Bank Palestinians clash with Israeli forces over building of new settlements near Bethlehem.
1996 December 10 Israel issues permits for the building of 132 housing units in Ras al-Amud East Jerusalem.
2001 December 15 US vetoes a proposed UNSC resolution concerned about the situation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. (Vote: 12 for, 2 abstentions, 1 veto)
2003 December 1 Abed Rabbo-Beilin Geneva Accord signed. Lays out plan for âpeace agreementâ between Israel and the Palestinian people limiting Right of Return. Israelis commit many massacres in Gaza Strip and its refugee camps (January-March, April, May, September-October), Beit Lahia (April), Rafah (May), Beit Hanoun (June), and Khan Younis (December).
Sources of information included: Dr. Salman Abu Sitta, Nizar Sakhnini, http:// www.al-awda.org, http://www.passia.org, http://www.middleeastreference.org.uk, http://www.aljazeera.net, and http://www.jerusalemfund.org