A WORK IN PROGRESS
The Partition Resolution 181Â was passed on 29 November 1947 by 33 votes with 13 opposed and 10 abstentions, dividing Palestine, against the will of the indigenous Palestinian people, into effectively three parts: aÂ Jewish part, a Palestinian part and an internationally administered zone to include the city of Jerusalem as a Corpus Separatum to be administered by the United Nations.
[The Arab League rejected the plan to partition Palestine by any outside power and declared its intention to wage war against the implementation of this resolution.Â Zionist underground forces began attacking Palestinian villages and towns and in March 1948, the United States, realising that the partition of Palestine could not be carried out in a peaceful manner,Â unsuccessfully sought forÂ Palestine to be placed under a temporary UN Trusteeship.Â The militarily superior Jewish forces proceeded to declare a Jewish State on 14 May 1948 which US President Truman authorised, but he crossed out Jewish State and replaced it with the word Israel.Â The British mandate ended on 15 May 1948.Â Throughout this process, around three quarters of a million Palestinians were terrorised out of their homeland.]
(adapted from information onÂ www.1948.co.uk)
This was passed on 22 November 1967 and embodies the principle that has guided most of the subsequent peace plans – the exchange of land for peace. The resolution called for the “withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict”, and “respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force”. The resolution is famous for the imprecision, in English, of its central phase concerning an Israeli withdrawal – it says simply “from territories”. The Israelis said this did not necessarily mean all territories, but Arab negotiators argued that it did. It was written under Chapter VI of the UN Charter, under which Security Council resolutions are recommendations, not under Chapter VII, which means they are orders. Many peace proposals refer to 242.
[from Global Policy Forum, 21 May 2007]
Resolution 338 is usually linked to Resolution 242 (see above).Â Â It called for a ceasefire in the war of October 1973 and urged the implementation of 242 “in all its parts”.
[from Global Policy Forum, 21 May 2007]
Palestinian Refugees have the right to return to their homes in Israel.
General Assembly Resolution 194, Dec. 11, 1948
“Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible.”
Israel’s occupation of Palestine is Illegal.
Security Council Resolution 242, Nov. 22, 1967
Calls for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from territories occupied in the war that year and “the acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.”
Israel’s settlements in Palestine are Illegal.
Security Council Resolution 446, March 22, 1979
“Determines that the policy and practices of Israel in establishing settlements in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967 have no legal validity and constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East.”
Palestinian have the right to Self-Determination.
General Assembly Resolution 3236, November 22, 1974
Affirms “the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people in Palestine…to self-determination without external interference” and “to national independence and sovereignty.”
Reaffirmation of a Palestinian State
Security Council Resolution 1397, March 12, 2002
Affirms “a vision of a region where two states, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized borders.”
More UN Resolutions on Israel, 1955-1992
Resolution 106: condemns Israel for Gaza raid.
Resolution 111: condemns Israel for raid on Syria that killed fifty-six people.
Resolution 127: recommends Israel suspend its no-man’s zone’ in Jerusalem.
Resolution 162: urges Israel to comply with UN decisions.
Resolution 171: determines flagrant violations by Israel in its attack on Syria.
Resolution 228: censures Israel for its attack on Samu in the West Bank, then under Jordanian control.
Resolution 237: urges Israel to allow return of new 1967 Palestinian refugees.
Resolution 248: condemns Israel for its massive attack on Karameh in Jordan.
Resolution 250: calls on Israel to refrain from holding military parade in Jerusalem.
Resolution 251: deeply deplores Israeli military parade in Jerusalem in defiance of Resolution 250.
Resolution 252: declares invalid Israel’s acts to unify Jerusalem as Jewish capital.
Resolution 256: condemns Israeli raids on Jordan as flagrant violation.
Resolution 259: deplores Israel’s refusal to accept UN mission to probe occupation.
Resolution 262: condemns Israel for attack on Beirut airport.
Resolution 265: condemns Israel for air attacks for Salt in Jordan.
Resolution 267: censures Israel for administrative acts to change the status of Jerusalem.
Resolution 270: condemns Israel for air attacks on villages in southern Lebanon.
Resolution 271: condemns Israel’s failure to obey UN resolutions on Jerusalem.
Resolution 279: demands withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon.
Resolution 280: condemns Israeli’s attacks against Lebanon.
Resolution 285: demands immediate Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.
Resolution 298: deplores Israel’s changing of the status of Jerusalem.
Resolution 313: demands that Israel stop attacks against Lebanon.
Resolution 316: condemns Israel for repeated attacks on Lebanon.
Resolution 317: deplores Israel’s refusal to release.
Resolution 332: condemns Israel’s repeated attacks against Lebanon.
Resolution 337: condemns Israel for violating Lebanon’s sovereignty.
Resolution 347: condemns Israeli attacks on Lebanon.
Resolution 425: calls on Israel to withdraw its forces from Lebanon.
Resolution 427: calls on Israel to complete its withdrawal from Lebanon.
Resolution 444: deplores Israel’s lack of cooperation with UN peacekeeping forces.
Resolution 446: determines that Israeli settlements are a serious obstruction to peace and calls on Israel to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention
Resolution 450: calls on Israel to stop attacking Lebanon.
Resolution 452: calls on Israel to cease building settlements in occupied territories.
Resolution 465: deplores Israel’s settlements and asks all member states not to assist its settlements program.
Resolution 467: strongly deplores Israel’s military intervention in Lebanon.
Resolution 468: calls on Israel to rescind illegal expulsions of two Palestinian mayors and a judge and to facilitate their return.
Resolution 469: strongly deplores Israel’s failure to observe the council’s order not to deport Palestinians.
Resolution 471: expresses deep concern at Israel’s failure to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention.
Resolution 476: reiterates that Israel’s claim to Jerusalem are null and void.
Resolution 478: censures (Israel) in the strongest terms for its claim to Jerusalem in its Basic Law.
Resolution 484: declares it imperative that Israel re-admit two deported Palestinian mayors.
Resolution 487: strongly condemns Israel for its attack on Iraq’s nuclear facility.
Resolution 497: decides that Israel’s annexation of Syria’s Golan Heights
is null and void and demands that Israel rescinds its decision forthwith.
Resolution 498: calls on Israel to withdraw from Lebanon.
Resolution 501: calls on Israel to stop attacks against Lebanon and withdraw its troops.
Resolution 509: demands that Israel withdraw its forces forthwith and unconditionally from Lebanon.
Resolution 515: demands that Israel lift its siege of Beirut and allow food supplies to be brought in.
Resolution 517: censures Israel for failing to obey UN resolutions and demands that Israel withdraw its forces from Lebanon.
Resolution 518: demands that Israel cooperate fully with UN forces in Lebanon.
Resolution 520: condemns Israel’s attack into West Beirut.
Resolution 573: condemns Israel vigorously for bombing Tunisia in attack on PLO headquarters.
Resolution 587: takes note of previous calls on Israel to withdraw its forces from Lebanon and urges all parties to withdraw.
Resolution 592: strongly deplores the killing of Palestinian students at Bir Zeit University by Israeli troops.
Resolution 605: strongly deplores Israel’s policies and practices denying the human rights of Palestinians.
Resolution 607: calls on Israel not to deport Palestinians and strongly requests it to abide by the Fourth Geneva Convention.
Resolution 608: deeply regrets that Israel has defied the United Nations and deported Palestinian civilians.
Resolution 636: deeply regrets Israeli deportation of Palestinian civilians.
Resolution 641: deplores Israel’s continuing deportation of Palestinians.
Resolution 672: condemns Israel for violence against Palestinians at the Haram Al-Sharif/Temple Mount.
Resolution 673: deplores Israel’s refusal to cooperate with the United Nations.
Resolution 681: deplores Israel’s resumption of the deportation of Palestinians.
Resolution 694: deplores Israel’s deportation of Palestinians and calls on it to ensure their safe and immediate return.
Resolution 726: strongly condemns Israel’s deportation of Palestinians.
Resolution 799: strongly condemns Israel’s deportation of 413 Palestinians and calls for their immediate return.
Annual Draft on Israeli Practices, One of Five, Expresses Grave Concern By Findings of Board of Inquiry, UN Fact Finding Mission on Gaza Conflict
For more information on The Question of Palestine and all the United Nations resolutions pertaining to it, click here.
Donald Neff in the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs – On Sept. 10, 1972, the United States employed its veto in the UN Security Council for only the second time in historyâto shield Israel. That veto, as it turned out, signalled the start of a cynical policy to use the U.S. veto repeatedly to shield Israel from international criticism, censure and sanctions. Washington used its veto 32 times to shield Israel from critical draft United Nations Security Council resolutions between 1972 and 1997. This constituted nearly half of the total U.S. vetoes cast since the founding of the U.N. more
Lessons to be Learned From Israelâs Ignored U.N. Resolutions
Donald Neff in the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs – The Clinton-Rabin agreement ignores the sorry record of the 26 years since Israelâs conquest of the West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. During that period Israel has unequivocally demonstrated that it does not want peace in exchange for territory. Its insistence on expelling Palestinians who oppose the occupation and on establishing Jewish settlements in the occupied territories are only the latest manifestations of its desire to retain them. Equally important in revealing its true policy is Israelâs successful record of resisting American and other peace initiatives over the years. more